Wednesday, December 20, 2017


Leaving things on Earth can be classified into 5 main categories. Animals, Plants, Bacteria, Fungi, and Protists. Most people know what the first four categories are, but what are protist?

Protist are sort of the miscellaneous category of creatures. They go where nothing else fits. Fungi, Animals, and Plants are all Multicellular. Bacteria, are Unicellular, and Prokaryotic, meaning they have no nucleus. Protist are Unicellular organisms that have a Nucleus, and are classified mainly by how they move. Below are a few examples of Protists and how they move:

Euglena - Whip like tail called a Flagellum

Paramecium - small hairs called cila

Amoeba - Gel like Pseudopods that help it crawl around.

Volvox - Whip like tails called Flagella

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The Scramble for Africa

In the 1800s, it had just been discovered by Europeans that Africa was filled to the brim with natural resources. Countries franticly made colonies there and began mining for these precious minerals. This quickly created conflict between the different European countries. So Otto Von Bismarck called for a meeting between all of them. The leaders of Many European countries arrived at a meeting to discuss how Africa Should be split among the different countries. They agreed to have open trade, and to leave other colonies alone. They split up the whole of Africa without any consent for the Natives, or its natural effect on the rest of the world.

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Tuesday, December 19, 2017


Nationalism is a nation with a common language, culture, religion, etc. Countries today build nationalism by sharing a common history, initiating public school systems, establishing national anthems. Countries in the 1800s did so by taking over other countries , and unifying the people under one cause and government. Germany, Japan, Italy, and the United States are all great examples of nationalism.

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The Industrial Revolution

Before the industrial revolution, everyone in the world had one job, survive. Buy as much land was possible, take care of it, then grow whatever you could. This was the life of many Generations of European Families. Starting in the 1800s, the industrial revolution, would change that for everyone.

Causes of Change

New inventions flooded England and much of Europe. Large farming machinery increased the amount of food in everyday villages to an extent that very little people there had to farm. Transportation also became much faster and more efficient, since trains and railroads were being manufactured in large amounts. This created a large demand for coal and fossil fuels. Giant Textile factories put local stores out of business, and created clothes in astonishing amounts for it's time period. 

Life During the Revolution

Life during the Industrial Revolution actually was not very glamorous. Children starting at age 3 would work 16 hour work shifts, in order to provide for their family. Factories were dangerous, and many died from pollution or the large machinery that was rotating three inches away from there workspace. Adults were run out of jobs because they cost 6 times as much money as children and women did to hire. Men would turn to crime in their shame, and the streets littered with thieves.

Life After the Revolution

As much as most people would hate to say it, the lives we have today would not exist if it weren't for child labor and the industrial revolution. The 1800s gave us large machinery, and electricity that would shape our lives and economy today.

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Friday, November 17, 2017

The Cell and Cell Theory

Recently in class, My classmates and I have been learning about the cell and the cell theory. A cell is the basic unit of life, and all living things have at least one. The cell theory is made up of three parts.

1. Cell is the simplest unit of life
2. All living things are made of one or more cells
3. Cells only come from other cells.

Cells themselves are different, depending on if it is a plant, or animal. Each type of cell, has a few unique parts.


Nucleus - The nucleus is where DNA is stored. It tells the cell what to do, and how to do it.

Cell Membrane - The cell membrane is a layer of slight protection around the cell. It keeps it intact, and lets certain things that the cell needs through.

Mitochondria - Small organelles where cellular respiration happens.

Ribosomes - Organelles that make and produce protein for the body.

Vacuole - Multiple storage areas for food, water, and waste if needed.


Nucleus - The nucleus is where DNA is stored. It tells the cell what to do, and how to do it.

Cell Membrane - The cell membrane is a layer of slight protection around the cell. It keeps it intact, and lets certain things that the cell needs through.

Cell Wall - Layer of protection that allows plant cells to retain there shape.

Mitochondria - Small organelles where cellular respiration happens.

Chloroplasts - Green organelles where photosynthesis happens.

Thursday, September 28, 2017

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade 

This week in class I learned about the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. This was a relationship between Europe, Africa, and America were slaves were exchanged for goods throughout the three continents. Europe would give guns and alcohol to Africa in exchange for slaves. These slaves would be shipped off to america where they were traded for cotton, and sugarcane. These materials would make their way to Europe where they were sold, starting the process all over again. 

This trade would continue for hundreds of years. Africans were mistreated and sold like products. Racism is still alive today, and continues to wreck the lives of millions of people.

Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Weather Basics

Weather Basics

The last couple of days I have been studying weather in Science Class. We have studied air masses, fronts, high and low pressure systems, types of clouds, and types of severe weather. 

Air masses are large groups of air molecules that have the same characteristics. They have the similar temperatures, densities, and humidity. 

When two of these air masses meet, a front forms. There are 4 types of fronts. Warm, Cold, Stationary, and Occluded. Warm fronts are when warm air rises above cold air, condenses, and rains for long periods of time. Cold fronts are when cold air forces warmer air up. This sudden change in movement, creates thunderstorms. Stationary fronts are when cold and warm air masses meet, and neither one can push the other one out of the way. This creates consistent weather for a few days. Occluded fronts are when warm air gets trapped between two cold air masses. This forces it up and creates snow, or other forms of frozen precipitation. 

High pressure systems are areas where air pressure is high. The weight of the air pushes wind away from it. The wind travels away from these areas and there is good weather. The wind travels towards low pressure systems. Here, air is forced up into the atmosphere by all the wind and creates clouds. These clouds get heavy and become bad weather. 

We also learned the basics on clouds. Cirrus clouds are light wisps and usually mean good weather, but that may change within 24 hours. Stratus clouds cover the whole sky and are gray. These usually mean bad weather is coming, and they rain lightly. Cumulonimbus clouds are where thunderstorms form. They are tall and dark, rain heavily, and contain thunder and lightning.  

Finally, we learned about some forms of severe weather and what damages they caused. We learned about hurricanes, thunderstorms, tornadoes, and blizzards. 

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

Absolutism and Enlightenment

Absolutism and Enlightenment

The last couple of days I have been working on layered curriculum about Absolutism and Enlightenment. Absolutism was the idea that one person would have absolute power over a certain area. These rulers were called monarchs. They claimed that God chose them to rule, that they had a divine right to power, that was why they were king. 

Enlightenment was an era where people began to challenge this common believe. Many philosophers began to ask what the true point of government was. Religion, Culture, and especially government were challenged on their role in a person's life. Some argued that a monarch was needed to keep people in check, while others said that people should get to choose how they live their life.

My final project is at

Water Cycle and Precipitation Quiz

Water Cycle and Precipitation Quiz

The test we took today was to to review our knowledge of the water cycle. We also were required to know the main forms of precipitation. The water cycle is powered by the sun and gravity, which keep the water moving from each step in the water cycle to the next. First, the sun evaporates water in lakes or oceans, turning the water to a gas. As the gas from of water called water vapor rises into the atmosphere, it cools down and condenses, turning into a cloud. That stage is called condensation. When enough water droplets are stuck together, they fall out of the sky as one of the forms of precipitation. These include rain, snow, sleet, hail, and freezing rain. Once these liquids hit the ground, they either seep into the ground(Infiltration), or it travels along the Earth's Surface(Run off). Either way, they both are pulled by gravity to larger bodies of water, where it evaporates again and the process restarts.

I scored a 86 on this quiz.

Thursday, September 14, 2017

Atmosphere and Air Quality Test

Atmosphere and Air Quality 

A few days ago I took a test on our atmosphere and the quality of the air inside it. We were required to know the layers of the atmosphere, major contributions to bad air quality, and what happens in each layer of the atmosphere. The Troposphere is the first layer of the atmosphere. This is were life resides and where weather happens. The next layer is the Stratosphere. Here, the ozone layer resides, which protects us from UV rays, and keeps our planet warm. The third layer is the Mesosphere. This is where meteorites burn and disintegrate. The fourth layer is the Thermosphere. This is were the Northern lights are. The final layer is the Exosphere. This layer is were space ships usually roam. 

I scored a 97 on my test 

Tuesday, September 12, 2017

Paper Slide Conquistador Video

Paper Slide Conquistador Video

My classmates and I learned recently about spanish conquistadors that visited the new world. We were instructed to chose one to make a paper slide video about. My group chose Francisco Pizarro, who journeyed down the South American Coast in search of the Inca's fabled cities of gold. He eventually found them, killed their leader Atahualpa, and started a war that would end in successful spanish conquest. Our video is the one labeled Casey, Leo, Angela.  

Good Things about our Video -
We did a good job getting our point across and giving detailed information, and speaking clearly. 

Bad Things about our Video - 
Some of our artistic features were less than adequate. In the future, my classmates and I will make sure to put more effort into our work. 

Tuesday, August 22, 2017

The Start of 7th Grade

The Start of 7th Grade 

As of now, I will be adding post and information as a 7th grader. I am now on the Tiger Team as apposed to the Gnomes Team. My information will be from 7th grade content as me and my fellow students continue to gain more knowledge. 

Information About Me

I am 12 years old and live in Apex NC. My favorite sport is swimming, and I do it for 13 hours every week. I also play large amounts of football and soccer. When I get older, I want to attend BYU in Provo Utah, get a degree, and become successful. My favorite football teams are BYU and The Washington Redskins. Me and my family root for all the Washington DC teams including the Capitals, Nationals, and Wizards.

My Favorite Quotes

Practice does not make Perfect. Perfect practice makes perfect.

- Vince Lombardi 

Nothing worth having comes easy,

- Theodore Roosevelt

Its the will not the skill.

- Dr. Jim Tunney


Monday, June 12, 2017

How to make a Box Plot

Box Plots 

One of the things I struggle most with in math is box plots. They always confuse me because the middle of the data is almost never in the middle of the graph.

What is a Box Plot?

The first thing you need to know, is what a box plot is. A box plot is a graph that shows data based on the five number summary (minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, maximum). These words are sometimes confusing, so here are their definitions.

Minimum - The smallest number in a set of data

First Quartile - The middle value of the first half of the data

Median - The middle number of the entire set of data

Third Quartile - The middle value of the second half of the data

Maximum - The greatest number in a set of data

Finding the 5 Number Summary

Now that we know what a box plot is, lets start making one. The data we have to use is:

1, 1, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 17, 19

The first thing we need to do is find the median. We do this by counting down from the sides. The median in this set of data is 9. The next thing we need to do is find minimum and maximum. We can do this by finding the largest number and smallest number in the data. The minimum in the data is 1, the maximum is 19.   Next is the first and third quartile. The first quartile is 2, the third is 15. Now we put these values on a number line.

             I       I                                                   I                                            I                             I
Image result for 1 number line to 20
The next step is to connect all the values with a line. Finally, create a box that starts at the first quartile, and ends at the third quartile. 

Tuesday, May 16, 2017


Taoism is a religion common in China. It was founded by Lao Tzu around 600 B.C.

Taoism focus on the way the life should be lived. It says that one should become one with the Tao (The universal force), by observing and trying to be like nature.

Lao Tzu believed that the strive for glory was what caused suffering. He thought we should just let life play out the way it naturally would. He wanted people to focus on our own path, which he thought was completely different for everyone.

Lao Tzu also preached that we should accept both the good and the bad in life. Also known as the Yin and Yang. This way we could be balanced in life.

Lao Tzu was a brilliant man, who preached on what he thought was the source of happiness.

How to Play Goalie in Soccer

How to Play Goalie in Soccer

Playing the goalie position in soccer, is easily the hardest position in the game to play. Knowing when to attack, swat, or save, is hard by itself. Actually doing it is even harder. 

Here are four ways you can be a successful goalie. 

1. Attack the ball

One of the most important jobs of a goalie is to clear the ball. You do this by getting your hands on it, so you can punt or throw the ball where you please. The easiest way to get the ball is to attack it. 

If the ball enters to box, go up and grab it. The other players are not allowed to touch you, so you have a freebie if you will take it. The only concern is that if you come out of the keeper position to attack, you HAVE to get the ball. If you don't, the other team has an open net to shoot on. 

2. Know your Teammates

The biggest disappointment in soccer is when you pass to someone in front of the goal, have them turn the ball over, and give the other team a free goal.

If none of your defenders can control the ball, just kick as far up field as you can. Do not even bother trying to give an accurate pass. This will limit turnovers in the defensive part of the field. 

3. Be a leader

The goalie does not only protect the goal, they are also in charge of the defense. Often times, defenders are in the wrong spot at the wrong time. Letting them know this, can be crucial to a games outcome. On a fast break, your defense should challenge the ball. 

This closes the passing lanes on the other side of the field, as the players would be offside. There is almost always one player, who is to far back, which opens up the passing lanes for a shot on goal. Recognizing this can be save a game for your team. Simply tell the person to push up. 

4. Pick a side

The scariest part of soccer, is standing in front of a net on a penalty kick. A lot of goalies will try to watch the ball, then freeze as the try to find it, and then... watch the ball sail through the net. 

The best way to give yourself a chance to make the save, is to dive to one side and hope the shooter kicks it in your direction. Even if the ball sails through the net, do not feel down. If the shooter can hit side net, there is almost nothing the goalie can do to make a save. 

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

How to Swim Butterfly

I happen to do a lot of competitive swimming. I practice 6 days a week, 2-4 hours a day. As one might expect, swimming butterfly might be pretty important. I learned a lot about how I could improve my stroke from this video, and make it so I do not die every time we have a "Fly" day.

The first thing that I learned applies to the kick of the Butterfly stroke.

If you notice, the swimmer uses a relatively straight leg while kicking and keeps his legs low in the water. When I swim, I do the exact opposite, bent legs and and high in the water. I do this in order to keep my body flat which reduces the amount of energy used. However, for a race, this is not appropriate, as my style is slightly slower because not as much power is used. Straight legs allow you to use your kick in order to support your body and throw yourself out of the water.

The next thing that I learned applies to the pull of the Butterfly stroke.

If you look carefully, you notice that the swimmer uses a bent wrist, and pushes down with his forearm in order to move in the water. This is efficient because not only does this push the water away and off your body, it propels you through the water. I pull inward and with a straight wrist until I meet the middle of my stomach. This is not efficient because my face slightly bends upwards which makes me sink, and lets the water push against my face which can take .4 to 1 second off my time. This is a lot in swimming.

The final thing I learned applies to the recovery and breathing method in butterfly

The first thing applies to the direction the swimmers hands are facing when the come out of the water. The face downwards as so to begin the pull phase as soon as they hit the water. My hands are straight, and swing out ward, which uses more energy and makes it harder to swim. The second thing applies to the head position the swimmer uses when he is breathing. If you look closely, you can see that his head does not move or turn as it comes out of the water. My head perks up which slows down my speed as the water pushes against my face as I reenter the water.

Monday, March 6, 2017

Ecosystems Test

What is an Ecosystem?

Today in Science, I passed an Ecosystems Test

 The score that I earned on my Ecosystems Test was a 95, I am actually a little disappointed in this grade because it drops my previously perfect 100 in Science. But I am still proud on my A that I earned on this

Ecosystems are like small communities for plants and animals.

 They are filled with different spices and wonders. My favorite Ecosystems are found in the Ocean, this is probably because my favorite animal is a Shark.

In an Ocean Ecosystem, the producers are small algae or seaweed that is eaten by plankton or small fish. The small fish are eaten by bigger fish which are eaten by other birds or even bigger fish. This linking of plants and animals is called a food web or food chain.

We also learned about Photosynthesis, as it is the start of energy in a food chain and is really important to understand. Photosynthesis, is the process of which the leaves on a plant make their own food. They take in water through their roots and carbon dioxide in through the Stomata, which are small holes on the bottom of the leaves.

 When these to things are mixed with Sunlight, plants create a glucose molecule, which they use for energy.

Two bi products of Photosynthesis are oxygen and water, they are the leftovers of photosynthesis, the release these two things for transpiration, which is the process that plants use to pull water up to their leaves. Water has a property that allows it to stick to other water molecules, this means that when water is pushed out of the leaves, it pulls up some of the water in the stem up to the leaves.

We use the leftover oxygen that is dispelled, in cellular respiration, which is the process we use to make energy. When we eat plants, we take in all the glucose that has been stored and it goes into our cells. We use oxygen that we breathe in order to break apart glucose which creates energy.

After this Test I decided I needed to study more on the topics that are going to be graded. I want to be better at school and learning. Now I am going to study more for tests that I value.

Tuesday, February 28, 2017

Authors Purpose

Authors Purpose

Persuade, Inform, Entertain

Today in Language Arts Class, we learned about how to find an authors purpose for writing.

Most writers write in order to persuade, inform, and entertain.

When an authors purpose is to inform, he will only give facts, no opinion and less excitement will be in the piece.

When an authors goal it to persuade, he will use very descriptive words.

If they want to entertain, he will likely write a fiction story with action or suspense.

Black Death

The Black Death/Bubonic Plague 

Millions Dead

The Black Death was a deadly plague that rocked through Asia and Most of Europe in the middle ages. 

Living in a time before medicine, plague doctors would be so desperate as too give their patients poison, so they die quickly. 

Huge purple, and black bumps the size of apples, grew in the armpits and groin. When a person saw these signs, they were almost certain to die. 

People were so afraid of falling ill, that they would abandon their own family and leave them to die alone. 

The disease killed anywhere from 1/3 to 1/2 of Europe's population at the time.

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Woods Runner Project

Language Arts Historical Fiction Project


In Language Arts Class, we have to read a historical fiction book and do a slideshow on it. Today, we focused on studying our characters. 

The Main Character so far in my book, is named Samuel. Samuel is a thirteen year old boy who lives with his parents on a settlement near northern Virginia. 

Samuel thrives on the woods near his cabin and learns to hunt exceedingly well, sometimes killing ten to fifteen deer a day. 

This causes Samuel to be very observant, as he must notice everything in order to find a kill every day. He is very smart too. 

When his settlement is attacked, he shows bravery by going to save his parents. Although, he is a bit reckless too. By the end of the book, I expect Samuel to become the protector for his family, and join the war effort. 

Magna Carta

What is the Magna Carta

Today in Social Studies, We learned about the Magna Carta

The Magna Carta is an ancient document that was created in the later part of the middle ages.

It was written by Rebel Barons living in the kingdom of King John. King John was famous for treating his citizens so badly. He overtaxed them, took family members hostage, and almost never followed his own laws.

The Rebel Barons became sick of his horrible treatment that they made a small army, and captured London. When the Rebels finally forced a meeting with King John, they forced him to sign the Magna Carta.

This document gave any free man rights, and said that the king could not violate, or dishonor, these rights. This was huge, it was the first time in history, a king was told "no".

Even though the pope declared the document invalid, the Magna Carta has inspired
many countries form of government today.

Tuesday, February 21, 2017


The Art of Origami

Origami is an ancient art common in China and Japan. Producers started making fun little creatures shortly after the creation of paper. 

 Origami involves folding a square piece of paper into shapes and animals. These animals often held messages or omens. For instance, paper cranes are seen as good luck and hope.  

People who often make origami can make almost anything from a ninja star to a small dragon. Many Origami creatures involve creating a base, then customizing the rest of the body parts from there. 

Practiced artist often create their own creatures, while beginners can watch videos or use online 
guides. I am pretty good at origami and I am proud of my creations although I have not invented my own creature. This is a dragon that I made.

Monday, February 20, 2017

Probability Mid-Unit Test Passed

Probability Rocks!

Today in Math, I took a Probability test.

I am rather proud of my score of an 88% on my probability test.

Probability is the chance of something happening. You find probability by dividing a specific outcome by all possible outcomes.

 For instance, if you roll a die, what is the chance of rolling a 4 on a 6 sided dice. There is one 4 on a 6 sided dice, so your equation is 1/6. This is also the probability. Since it is less than 1/4 a chance, it is considered unlikely.

We also had to determine the probability of dropping a dart randomly on an area and having it land on a shaded area, assuming it must land on the target. To find that, you dived the area of the shaded region by the area of the entire area.

The two questions I got wrong were because I did not simplify my fractions correctly. I need to make sure I double check my work every time.

Thursday, February 9, 2017

Standing Up to Injustice Doesn't Seem Easy.

Today in social studies, we were talking about the Holocaust.  

One of my classmates made a big speech about how anyone who was alive during the Holocaust that didn’t speak up against what the Germans were doing to minority groups was a chicken.  His point was that anytime that you see something bad happening, you HAVE to speak up -- and that if you don’t, you aren’t a good person.  

I’m not sure that I agree with him.  While I agree that we SHOULD speak up when we see something bad happening -- especially something as bad as the Holocaust -- I don’t think it is always that easy.  

Take living in Germany for example:  I bet that all of your neighbors and friends in school would either agree with Hitler’s decisions or be afraid of the consequences of disagreeing in front of everyone else.  I know that’s how I feel when I see friends making bad choices.  Even though I know the choices are bad, I don’t always speak up because I don’t want to make enemies.  

I want to find some interviews to read of people who were alive during tough times like the Holocaust to see if they ever felt bad about what was happening -- and to see what (if anything) they did about it.  

Tuesday, February 7, 2017

What Artifacts Will they Use to Learn About Us?

In social studies class, we've been studying the role that artifacts play in helping us to learn more about ancient cultures.  That's been really interesting to me simply because I always wondered how we know what we know about civilizations that existed hundreds -- even thousands -- of years ago.

But the question rolling through my mind right now is what artifacts will they use to learn more about today's civilization?  Or better yet, will they need to use artifacts at all?

After all, so much of our lives are lived online that most of the time, you can just Google somebody and learn a ton about them.  You can watch entire television shows on the web, see interviews with people, and explore thousands and thousands of pictures.

If I understand the web right, those kinds of images and pictures will never go away -- and if they don't, that means people should be able to learn about our civilization without ever having to collect solid artifacts.

Here's what I'm wondering:

  • Is it a good thing that people won't need to look for physical artifacts to learn about our culture?
  • Can you really know everything about a person and/or a civilization from the content that you can learn about them on the web?
  • Will digital artifacts last as long as physical artifacts -- or are physical artifacts longer lasting than digital ones?

Wednesday, February 1, 2017

Donald Trump's Immigration Ban

One of the major events on the news right now is Donald Trump's decision to restrict immigration from seven Muslim countries.  

I also know that there have been lots of debate in the world about allowing refugees from the Middle East to move through Europe.  Letting immigrants and refugees in feels like the right thing to do, but many countries think it's a bad idea simply because refugees are so needy that accepting them into your country can be really expensive.  Also, there have been terrorist attacks in lots of places over the last year.  One I can remember happened in Paris.

That's super interesting to me largely because in Social Studies, we've spent the better part of the last two weeks talking about all of the different ways that immigration has helped society.  Ideas travel around the world as a result of immigration -- so shutting down immigration also means shutting down the movement of ideas.

It's also interesting to me because we've spent part of our time in Social Studies specifically studying Islam and the Muslim World.  What I've learned is that there are tons of important inventions and ideas that have come to "The Western World" from Muslim scholars and historians and experts.

What I'm wondering about right now is:

  • Has the Muslim world changed somehow?  Are today's Muslims different from yesterday's?  Does that make accepting Muslims into our country less safe than maybe it was before?
  • Will the United States be harmed by refusing to allow people and ideas from Muslim countries to come to our country?
  • Is Donald Trump's decision one that I should support or oppose?

Wednesday, January 25, 2017

Can We Drive on Solar Panels?

In science class today, we were talking about solar energy and the important role that it can play in fighting back against global warming.  

What I learned, though, is that even though enough sunlight lands on the earth every minute to power the entire world for a year, we don’t catch or convert very much of that sunlight into electricity.  

That got me thinking that we need to find creative ways to catch as much energy as we can.  

One idea that I had was that we should create super durable solar panels that can be driven on and then install those panels into every parking lot.  Think about how cool that would be.  There are parking lots EVERYWHERE -- and most of them are uncovered and hit by sunlight all day long.  If we turned them into drivable solar panels, we’d catch lots of energy.  

I want to do some research on solar panels to see how durable they are.